How your Society has performed in 2018/19
Strong today,
investing for tomorrow.
Highlights and introductions from your Chairman and CEO
Cutout 1
Jade, member since 2013 and
Sienna, member since 2016
How we’re
Who we are, what we do and what we’re investing in.
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Ian, member since 2003 and
Patty, member since 2016
Helping more
make more of their money
Helping our members buy their first home is just one of the reasons we were founded.
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Jay, member since 1999
Keeping our Society
and our
money safe
We’re here to keep our members’ money exactly where it should be.
Cutout 2
Andreas, branch manager since 2005
Striving to serve our
every day
We think face-to-face service is still really important.
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Carl and Jacob, members since 2018
the right
to do the best for
our members
Our employees are a big part of who we are and how we’re run.
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Elrich, IT Disaster Recovery Analyst since 2016
communities and
making a
We’re working with local communities to make sure everyone has a place fit to call home.
Cutout 2
Adam, Rock Trust project worker
How we’ve
this year
See how we’ve been performing this year and whether we’ve hit our targets.
Cutout 2
Victoria, Member since 2003
All about
our finances
We’re here to offer the best long-term value possible to our members.
Cutout 2
Melissa, member since 2013

Financial review

Mark Rennison

Your Society’s Chief Financial Officer

In summary

“Nationwide concluded 2018/19 in a position of financial strength with demonstrable momentum in trading performance. This reflects our continued commitment and focus on offering good value products, and better service for our members, whilst maintaining capital strength.”

An advantage of being a building society is that we can choose how we utilise our resources in order to deliver more long-term value and better services to our members. During the year we have continued to be guided by our Financial Performance Framework on how we distribute value to members, invest in the Society and retain profits. As signalled by our technology investment announcement in September 2018, a programme of investment has been initiated which will target the simplification of our IT estate, together with enhancement of our digital service and data capabilities, over the next five years. During the year we have recognised a charge of £227 million from asset write-offs and additional technology investment.

As a mutual we continue to aim to optimise, not maximise, profit and offer good long-term value to our members. For the year ended 4 April 2019, we delivered a member financial benefit of £705 million (2018: £560 million), demonstrating the competitive products and services that we offer our members. In line with expectations, underlying profit reduced by 19% to £788 million (2018: £977 million) and statutory profit before tax reduced by 15% to £833 million (2018: £977 million), largely due to the impact of asset write-offs and our investment in technology. This level of profitability maintained our capital strength, with our UK leverage ratio remaining at 4.9% (2018: 4.9%), well in excess of current and anticipated regulatory requirements.

Notwithstanding the continued uncertainty in the external environment and competitive market conditions, trading performance for the year has been robust with our strongest ever gross lending at £36.4 billion (2018: £33.0 billion), and a growth in member deposits of £6.0 billion (2018: £3.5 billion), reflecting the success of our Single Access ISA, Loyalty ISA and an increase in current account credit balances.

Achieving sustainable cost savings and embedding efficiencies remains a priority for the Society. We continue to make good progress with our efficiency programme, with a further £103 million of in-year sustainable saves being delivered during the year. On a cumulative basis, including the full year benefit of sustainable saves delivered over the last two years, we have now delivered approximately half of our target of £500 million of sustainable saves by 2023.

On 5 April 2018 we implemented IFRS 9 ‘Financial Instruments’. The total impact on members’ interests and equity, net of deferred tax, was a reduction of £162 million. There has been no restatement of comparatives following adoption of IFRS 9. Where useful for the interpretation of balances or movements, we have highlighted the impact on the Group’s balance sheet and members’ interests and equity at 5 April 2018.

Underlying profit

£788 million

(2018: £977m)


Statutory profit

£833 million

(2018: £977m)


UK leverage ratio


(2018: 4.9%)


Income statement

Underlying profit represents management’s view of underlying performance. The components of underlying profit have been changed during the year to reflect more appropriately ongoing business performance. As a result, underlying profit now includes the bank levy and FSCS management expenses, which were previously excluded. For the year ended 4 April 2019 this decreased underlying profit by
£45 million (2018: £46 million). Comparatives have been restated. Underlying profit continues to exclude FSCS costs arising from institutional failures, and gains or losses from derivatives and hedge accounting.

Underlying and statutory results (note i)

Net interest income (note ii) Net other income (note ii) Total underlying income Underlying administrative expenses Impairment losses Underlying provisions for liabilities Underlying profit before tax Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS) (note iii) Gains/(losses) from derivatives and hedge accounting (notes iii, iv) Statutory profit before tax Taxation Profit after tax
Year to
4 April 2019
2,915 255 3,170 (2,254) (113) (15) 788 9 36 833 (215) 618
Year to
4 April 2018
3,004 128 3,132 (2,024) (105) (26) 977 1 (1) 977 (232) 745
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  1. Under IFRS 9, the recognition and measurement of expected credit losses differs from under IAS 39. As prior period amounts have not been restated, impairment losses on loans and advances in the comparative period remain in accordance with IAS 39 and are therefore not directly comparable with impairment losses recorded for the current period.
  2. The opportunity has been taken to reclassify certain items previously included within net interest income to reflect better the nature of the transactions. As a result, gains and losses recognised on the disposal of investment securities classified as FVOCI (2018: available for sale) are now presented within net other income.
  3. Within statutory profit:
    • FSCS costs arising from institutional failures, are included within provisions for liabilities and charges.
    • Gains from derivatives and hedge accounting, are presented separately within total income.
  4. Although we only use derivatives to hedge market risks, income statement volatility can still arise due to hedge accounting ineffectiveness or because hedge accounting is either not applied or is not achievable. This volatility is largely attributable to accounting rules which do not fully reflect the economic reality of the hedging strategy.

Net Interest Margin:


(2018: 1.31% note ii)


Underlying Cost Income Ratio:


(2018: 64.6%)


Statutory Cost
Income Ratio:


(2018: 64.6%)


Total income and margin

As anticipated, net interest income has decreased, reducing by 3% to £2,915 million (2018: £3,004 million) due to lower mortgage income, reflecting sustained market competition and ongoing attrition of base mortgage rate (BMR) balances. Net interest margin (NIM) has therefore reduced to 1.22% (2018: 1.31%). We have continued to make conscious choices to deliver value to our borrowing members through attractive rates, with the average rate paid by our prime mortgage members reducing during the year to 2.34% (2018: 2.45%). The availability of low rates on new mortgages has encouraged product switching and refinancing, with £26.5 billion of prime mortgage customer balances having switched to a new Nationwide product in the year (2018: £24 billion). Our legacy BMR balances have continued to run off during the period and as at 4 April 2019 were £18.1 billion (4 April 2018: £22.7 billion).

The negative impact to NIM from declining mortgage margins has been partially offset by low savings rates. We have continued to manage savings pricing in line with our commitment to provide good long-term value for members. During the year depositors have continued to earn average rates more than 50% higher than the market average1. We expect market conditions to remain competitive, and product switching and BMR balance attrition to continue in line with recent experience. We anticipate therefore that our reported NIM will continue to trend lower in the year ahead.

Net other income has increased to £255 million during the year (2018: £128 million), predominantly due to the prior year including a £116 million charge in relation to a debt buy back exercise.

Member financial benefit

As a building society, we seek to maintain our financial strength whilst providing value to our members through pricing, propositions and service. Through our member financial benefit, we measure the additional financial value for members from the highly competitive mortgage, savings and banking products that we offer compared to the market. Member financial benefit is calculated by comparing, in aggregate, Nationwide’s average interest rates and incentives across mortgages, savings, current accounts, personal loans and credit cards to the market, predominantly using market data provided by the Bank of England and CACI. The value for individual members will depend on their circumstances and product choices. We quantify member financial benefit as:

Our interest rate differential + incentives and lower fees

Interest rate differential

We measure how our average interest rates across our member balances in total compare against the market over the period.

For our two largest member segments, mortgages and retail deposits, we compare the average member interest rate for these portfolios against Bank of England and CACI industry data. A market benchmark based upon the data from CACI is used for mortgages and a Bank of England benchmark is used for retail deposits, both adjusted to exclude Nationwide balances. The differentials derived in this way are then applied to member balances for mortgages and deposits.

For unsecured lending, a similar comparison is made. We calculate an interest rate differential based on available market data from the Bank of England and apply this to the total interest bearing balances of credit cards and personal loans.

Member incentives and lower fees

Our member financial benefit measure also includes amounts in relation to higher incentives and lower fees that Nationwide offers to members. Our calculation includes annual amounts for the following:

  • Mortgages: the differential on incentives for members compared to the market
  • ‘Recommend a friend’: the amount paid to existing members, when they recommend a new current account member to the Society
  • FlexPlus account: this current account is considered market leading against major banking competitors, with a high level of benefits for a relatively smaller fee. The difference between the monthly account fee of £13 and the market average of £17 is included in the member financial benefit measure.

For the year ended 4 April 2019, this measure shows we have provided our members with a financial benefit of £705 million (2018: £560 million). This demonstrates that we continue to offer good long-term value products to our members in both the mortgage and deposit markets, despite strong levels of competition.

Member financial benefit is derived with reference to available market or industry level data. No adjustment is made to take account of factors such as customer mix, risk appetite and product strategy, due to both limitations in the availability of data and to avoid bias from segments in which Nationwide may be under or over-represented. On an ongoing basis we will continue to review our methodology to ensure it captures all the key elements of the financial benefits we provide to our members, where data is available.

1 Market average interest rates are based on Bank of England whole of market average interest rates, adjusted to exclude Nationwide’s balances.

Administrative expenses

Administrative expenses include the impact of technology asset write-offs and incremental expenditure associated with our technology investment announced in September 2018. The investment programme incorporates £1.3 billion of incremental expenditure to be incurred over five years, targeting the enhancement of our digital services and data capabilities, together with a simplification of our technology estate. During the year we have recognised a charge of £227 million, comprising asset write-offs and impairments of £115 million, combined with expenditure which relates directly to our technology investment of £112 million.

Excluding this charge, our cost base is broadly flat. Our continued focus on efficiency has allowed us to absorb inflation, volume growth and the impact of prior year investment. Beyond our additional technology investment programme, we continue to make ongoing investments in supporting the long-term interests of our members, including improving member service and propositions, both in branch and through digital channels, and meeting regulatory requirements.

Achieving sustainable cost savings and embedding efficiencies remain a priority for the Society. We have delivered a further £103 million of new in-year sustainable saves during the year. On a cumulative basis, including the full year benefit of sustainable saves delivered over the last two years, we have now delivered approximately half of our target of £500 million of sustainable saves by 2023. This has been achieved through a range of initiatives that are focused on the development of digital capabilities, organisational design, third party savings, process improvements, simplification and elimination.

Our underlying cost income ratio has increased to 71.1% (2018: 64.6%) largely due to the impact of the asset write-offs and expenditure directly related to our technology investment programme.

Impairment losses/(reversals) on loans and advances to customers

Impairment losses have increased by £8 million to £113 million (2018: £105 million). Despite this increase in impairments the underlying portfolio performance remains strong.

Retail lending impairment losses remain at historically low levels with the £17 million reversal (2018: £11 million charge) for the residential lending book resulting from improvements to the modelling of refinance risk on interest only loans and updated economic assumptions. The increase in the consumer banking impairment charge to £114 million (2018: £97 million) includes additional provisions against the credit card portfolio relating to borrowers considered to be in persistent debt (explained in the Credit risk - Consumer banking section of the Annual report and accounts). Notwithstanding this increase, delinquency levels on the consumer banking portfolio have remained low during the year.

During the year commercial loan impairments were £16 million (2018: £1 million reversal) due to increased credit risk associated with two individual loans, with the overall portfolio performance remaining robust.

Impairment losses/(reversals)

Residential lending Consumer banking Retail lending Commercial and other lending Impairment losses on loans and advances Impairment losses on investment securities Total
Year to
4 April 2019
(17) 114 97 16 113 - 113
Year to
4 April 2018
11 97 108 (1) 107 (2) 105
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  1. Under IFRS 9, the recognition and measurement of expected credit losses differs from under IAS 39. As prior period amounts have not been restated, impairment losses in the comparative period are not comparable to impairment losses recorded for the current period.

Provisions for liabilities and charges

We hold provisions for customer redress to cover the costs of remediation and redress in relation to past sales of financial products and ongoing administration, including non-compliance with consumer credit legislation and other regulatory requirements. The net charge of £15 million (2018: £26 million) reflects our latest estimate of our customer redress liabilities. More information is included in note 27 to the financial statements.


The tax charge for the year of £215 million (2018: £232 million) represents an effective tax rate of 25.8% (2018: 23.7%) which is higher than the statutory UK corporation tax rate of 19% (2018: 19%). The effective tax rate is higher due to the 8% banking surcharge of £37 million (2018: £43 million) and the tax effect of disallowable bank levy and customer redress costs. More information is included in note 11 to the financial statements.

Balance Sheet

Total assets have increased 4% year on year to reach £238.3 billion (5 April 2018: £228.9 billion) with a robust trading performance driving £8.6 billion of net mortgage lending (2018: £5.8 billion). This has been supported by strong growth in retail funding flows, with member deposits growing by £6.0 billion to £154.0 billion (5 April 2018: £148.0 billion) and our market share of UK deposits increasing slightly to 10.1% (31 March 2018: 10.0%). Of the growth in member deposits, £4.6 billion is attributable to an increase in savings balances largely reflecting the success during the year of accounts such as our Single Access ISA and Loyalty ISA.


Residential mortgages (note ii) Commercial and other lending (note iii) Consumer banking   Impairment provisions Loans and advances to customers Other financial assets Other non-financial assets Total assets   Asset quality Residential mortgages (note ii): Proportion of residential mortgage accounts more than 3
months in arrears
Average indexed loan to value (by value)   Consumer banking: Proportion of customer balances with amounts past due
more than 3 months (excluding charged off balances)
(note iv)
4 April 2019
186,012 9,118 4,586 199,716 (665) 199,051 36,709 2,541 238,301   %   0.43
58     1.35
% 93 5 2 100                  
5 April 2018
(note i)
177,303 10,640 4,107 192,050 (629) 191,421 34,877 2,639 228,937        
% 92 6 2 100                  
4 April 2018
177,299 10,645 4,107 192,051 (458) 191,593 34,912 2,593 229,098   %   0.43
56     1.56
% 92 6 2 100                  
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  1. Balances as at 5 April 2018 reflect the impact of applying IFRS 9 ‘Financial Instruments’.
  2. Residential mortgages include prime and specialist loans, with the specialist portfolio primarily comprising buy to let lending.
  3. Commercial and other lending now exclude balances held with counterparties which are institutions similar to banks. These balances are now reported in Loans and advances to banks and similar institutions (Other financial assets line), and comparatives have been restated to disclose information on the same basis. Further details are included in note 1 to the financial statements.
  4. Charged off balances relate to accounts which are closed to future transactions and are held on the balance sheet for an extended period (up to 36 months, depending on the product) whilst recovery procedures take place.

Liquidity Coverage Ratio:


(2018: 130.3%)


Return on Assets:


(2018: 0.33%)


Residential mortgages

Despite competitive market conditions, total gross mortgage lending for the year was £36.4 billion (2018: £33.0 billion) representing our strongest ever year of gross mortgage lending and reflecting the competitively priced products and good long-term value that we continue to offer. Our market share of prime mortgage gross lending as at March 2019 has grown to 13.4% (2018: 12.8%). As a result, total net mortgage lending for the year increased by £2.8 billion to £8.6 billion (2018: £5.8 billion).

Arrears performance has remained stable during the year, with cases more than three months in arrears at 0.43% of the total portfolio (4 April 2018: 0.43%). The average LTV of the portfolio has increased during the year to 58% (4 April 2018: 56%), reflecting new lending, offset to a lesser degree this year by house price growth across the whole portfolio. Impairment provisions have decreased to £206 million (5 April 2018: £235 million) largely due to continued run-off of legacy, higher risk portfolios combined with refinements to our provisioning methodology.

Commercial and other lending

During the year commercial balances have decreased by £1.5 billion to £9.1 billion (5 April 2018: £10.6 billion). As previously reported, our commercial real estate (CRE) portfolio is closed to new business and is currently in run-off. As a result, CRE balances have reduced during the year by £0.4 billion to £1.4 billion (5 April 2018: £1.8 billion). Impairment provisions have increased to £41 million (5 April 2018: £29 million) due to increased credit risks associated with two individual loan exposures. Notwithstanding this increase in provisions, the overall book performance remains strong and our exit from the commercial real estate market continues to be carefully managed.

Given deleveraging activity in previous financial years, the overall portfolio is increasingly weighted towards registered social landlords with balances of £6.0 billion (5 April 2018: £6.8 billion) and project finance with balances of £0.8 billion (5 April 2018: £0.9 billion). The reduction in our registered social landlord book largely reflects early redemptions of loans by housing associations.

Consumer banking

Consumer banking balances have grown by £0.5 billion to £4.6 billion (5 April 2018: £4.1 billion). This balance growth was driven by a record £1.8 billion of personal loan lending during the year (2018: £1.3 billion) following the reduction in headline rates in March 2018 and changes to extend our lowest pricing to more members from January 2019.

Other financial assets

Other financial assets total £36.7 billion (5 April 2018: £34.8 billion), primarily comprising liquidity and investment assets held by our Treasury function of £32.7 billion (5 April 2018: £30.8 billion) and derivatives with positive fair values of £3.6 billion (5 April 2018: £4.0 billion). Derivatives relate primarily to interest rate and foreign exchange contracts which economically hedge financial risks inherent in core lending and funding activities.

Our Liquidity Coverage Ratio has increased during the year to 150.2% (4 April 2018: 130.3%) largely due to the pre-funding of future wholesale funding maturities combined with a reduction in stressed collateral requirements. We continue to manage our liquidity in accordance with our risk appetite, which is more prudent than regulatory requirements. Further details are included in the Liquidity and funding risk section of the Annual report and accounts.

Members’ interests, equity and liabilities

Member deposits Debt securities in issue Other financial liabilities Other liabilities Total liabilities Members’ interests and equity Total members’ interests, equity and liabilities
4 April 2019
153,969 35,942 33,755 1,466 225,132 13,169 238,301
5 April 2018 (note i)
148,003 34,118 33,173 1,402 216,696 12,241 228,937
4 April 2018
148,003 34,118 33,173 1,401 216,695 12,403 229,098
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  1. Balances as at 5 April 2018 reflect the impact of applying IFRS 9.

Wholesale funding ratio:


(2018: 28.2%)


Member deposits

Member deposits have increased by £6.0 billion to £154.0 billion (4 April 2018: £148.0 billion) largely reflecting the success of our Single Access and Loyalty ISAs, combined with higher current account credit balances. In a competitive market, we have slightly increased our market share of deposits as at March 2019 to 10.1% (2018: 10.0%). Our market share of main standard and packaged current accounts grew to 8.0% (2018: 7.9%), with our market share of new current account openings increasing during the year to 16.2% (2018: 15.8%).

Debt securities in issue and other financial liabilities

Debt securities in issue have increased during the year by £1.8 billion to £35.9 billion (5 April 2018: £34.1 billion) largely due to wholesale funding issued in order to finance our core activities. Other financial liabilities have increased by £0.6 billion to £33.8 billion (5 April 2018: £33.2 billion) primarily due to issuances of debt during the year in order to meet the minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities. Further details are included in the Liquidity and funding risk section of
the Annual report and accounts.

Members’ interests and equity

Members’ interests and equity has increased by £1.0 billion to £13.2 billion (5 April 2018: £12.2 billion) largely reflecting additional retained profits and an increase in the cash flow hedge reserve.

Statement of comprehensive income

Further information on gross movements in the pension obligation and movements in the cash flow hedge reserve are included in notes 30 and 7 to the financial statements respectively.

Statement of comprehensive income (note i)

Profit after tax Net remeasurement of pension obligations Net movement in cash flow hedge reserve Net movement in fair value through other comprehensive income reserve Net movement in available for sale reserve Other Items Total comprehensive income
Year to 4 April 2019
618 153 328 (12) - (1) 1,086
Year to 4 April 2018
745 22 (191) - 31 1 608
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  1. Movements are shown net of related taxation.

Financial Performance Framework

As a mutual, we aim to optimise, rather than maximise, profit and retain sufficient earnings to support future growth, sustain a strong capital position and allow us to invest in the business to provide the products and services that our members demand. We have used the most recent guidance from regulators regarding the maximum expected capital requirement for Nationwide to develop our Financial Performance Framework. This framework provides parameters which will allow us to calibrate future performance and help ensure that we achieve the right balance between distributing value to members, investing in our business and maintaining our financial strength.

One of the most important of these parameters is profit, management of which is a key component in maintaining Nationwide’s capital strength. We believe that a level of underlying profit of approximately £0.9 billion to £1.3 billion per annum over the medium term would meet the Board’s objective for sustainable capital strength. This range will vary from time to time, and whether our profitability falls within or outside this range in any given financial year or period will depend on a number of external and internal factors, including conscious decisions to provide value to members or to make investments in the business. It should not be construed as a forecast of the likely level of Nationwide’s underlying profit for any financial year or period within a financial year.

We remain committed to our Financial Performance Framework. Our profit for the year ended 4 April 2019 reflects conscious decisions to increase investment at a time when members needs are changing rapidly and technology advancement is offering new opportunities. We are satisfied that this performance is in line with the framework.

Capital structure

Our capital position has strengthened during the period with our CET1 ratio increasing to 32.4% (5 April 2018: 30.4%) whilst our UK leverage ratio remained stable at 4.9% (5 April 2018: 4.9%).

Both remain in excess of the regulatory capital requirements of 13.2% and 4.0% respectively, which include CRD IV buffers applicable from August 2019.

The CET1 ratio increased to 32.4% (5 April 2018: 30.4%) as a result of an increase in CET1 capital resources, with RWAs remaining relatively stable. CET1 capital resources have increased by £0.6 billion, primarily due to the profit after tax for the year of £0.6 billion. RWAs remained stable with increased retail lending and treasury related RWAs offset by run-off in the commercial book and the implementation of a new credit card IRB model.

Capital structure (note i)

Capital resources Common Equity Tier 1 (CET1) capital Total Tier 1 capital Total regulatory capital Risk weighted assets (RWAs) UK leverage exposure CRR leverage exposure   CRD IV capital ratios: CET1 ratio UK leverage ratio (note iii) CRR leverage ratio (note iv)
4 April 2019
  10,517 11,509 14,485 32,506 235,147 247,586   % 32.4 4.9 4.6
5 April 2018 (note ii)
  9,915 10,907 13,930 32,579 221,982 236,458   % 30.4 4.9 4.6
4 April 2018
  9,925 10,917 13,936 32,509 221,992 236,468   % 30.5 4.9 4.6
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  1. Data in the table is reported under CRD IV on an end point basis with IFRS 9 transitional arrangements applied.
  2. Figures have been adjusted to reflect the impact of applying IFRS 9 from 5 April 2018. Further information is provided in note 37 and in our ‘Report on Transition to IFRS 9: Financial Instruments’, which can be found at
  3. The UK leverage ratio (as defined in the PRA rulebook) is calculated using the Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR) definition of Tier 1 for the capital amount and the Delegated Act definition of the exposure measure, excluding eligible central bank reserves.
  4. The Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR) leverage ratio is calculated using the CRR definition of Tier 1 for the capital amount and the Delegated Act definition of the exposure measure and is reported on an end point basis.

The UK leverage ratio remained stable at 4.9% (5 April 2018: 4.9%), with an increase in Tier 1 capital driven by profit after tax of £0.6 billion offset by an increase in UK leverage exposure of £13 billion resulting from an increase in net retail lending of £9 billion, an increase in treasury exposures (including counterparty credit risk) of £5 billion, and an increase in other assets of £1 billion, offset by run-off in the commercial book of £2 billion. The CRR leverage ratio is based on the Delegated Act definition and therefore exposures include central bank reserves. This also remained stable at 4.6% (5 April 2018: 4.6%). On 24 April 2019, Nationwide notified investors of its intention to redeem its outstanding Additional Tier 1 capital instrument in full, on 20 June 2019. This will reduce Tier 1 capital resources by £992 million, resulting in a 0.4 percentage points reduction in the UK leverage ratio, to 4.5%, and a 0.4 percentage points reduction in CRR leverage ratio to 4.2%, based on the year end balance sheet.

Nationwide expects to implement new residential mortgage IRB models in 2020, incorporating the changes required by the June 2017 update to supervisory statement 11/13. This is anticipated to increase RWAs, leading to an estimated reduction in the CET1 ratio of approximately one third, based on our reported ratio at 4 April 2019. We expect the CET1 ratio to be impacted further by the Basel III reforms which come into effect progressively between 2022 and 2027. The impact of this legislation will supersede the effect of the new IRB models, with an expected reduction in the reported CET1 ratio of approximately 45% to 50%, relative to the 4 April 2019 position; however organic earnings through the transition will mitigate this impact and we expect leverage requirements to remain our binding constraint based on latest projections.